Glossary of important terms

Writing Terms

Thesis Statement- a statement of purpose, intent, and main idea of an essay

Topic sentence- the sentence that contains the main idea of the paragraph

Clincher statement- the sentence that summarizes the point of a paragraph or essay, usually at the end

Major supports- the pieces of information that support you topic the most

Minor supports- information that gives extra support to you major supports

Transitions- words or phrases that help to show relationships between two things and tie them together

Coherence- the arrangement of ideas in such a way that the reader can easily follow from one point to the next

Unity- writing in which each sentence helps to develop the main idea

Grammar Terms

8 parts of speech

Noun- a person, place, thing, or idea (ball, love, mom)
---common and proper
---concrete and abstract
---Number (singular, plural, collective)

Verb- a word that expresses action or state of being
---action (jump, hit, write)
---helping (being, should, have)
---linking (look, become, is)

Adjective- a word that modifies a noun or pronoun
---descriptive (big, little, scary)
--articles, definite (the) or indefinite (a, an)
--numerals, cardinals (one, two) or ordinals (first, second)

Adverb- a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb
---usually end in -ly (happily, crazily)

Pronoun- a word that takes the place of a common noun
---personal, subjective (I, you, we) or objective (her, it, them)
---possessive (yours, his, mine, theirs)
---reflexive (myself, yourself, themselves)
---demonstrative (this, that, those)
---indefinite (one, any, somebody)
---relative (that, whom, which)

Preposition- a word that explains a relationship between one noun and another
---(before, inside, through, toward, beneath, with, under, between)

Conjunction- a word that connects or joins parts of sentences
---coordinating (for, and, nor, but, yet)
---subordinating (after, although, unless, while)
---correlative (either...or, not only...but also)

Interjection- a word that expresses strong emotion
--- (ouch, wow, hey, oh)

Phrase-A group of words with a subject OR a verb.
Clause- A group of words with a subject AND a verb.

Passive Voice- sentence where the subject is not doing the acting, but instead being acted upon
Hannah was given the Christmas gift by Courtney.

Passive voice information and quiz

Parallel structure- using the same pattern of words in writing to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance
Not Parallel:
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.

Parallel structure quiz

Literary Terms

Personification- a non-human object, force, idea, etc. is given the qualities of a human

Imagery- creating a life-like image of an event etc. using the five senses

Foreshadow- the use of hints or clues in a narrative to show what is to come

Simile- a comparison of two things using like or as

Metaphor- a comparison of two things without using like or as

Allusion- a brief reference to a person, place, or event (real or fake) that normally occurred in the past

Conflict- a struggle between two opposing forces or characters (internal or external)
-person vs. person
-person vs. nature
-person vs. society
-person vs. supernatural
-two opposite ideas in a person's mind